DK-Lok Fittings JIC Fittings

DK-LOK JIC Fittings: Superior, high-quality tube connections

Table of Contents

Ever wondered about the workings of hydraulic systems? They’re powered by various components, one of which is the JIC flare fitting, such as the renowned DK-LOK JIC fitting.

JIC, standing for Joint Industry Council, is a type of fitting that has existed since the 1930s. Its design has largely stayed the same due to its reliability, durability, and ease of use with a securing nut.

DK-LOK stands out in the JIC flare fittings realm. Their JIC fittings, crafted from high-quality materials like stainless steel, brass, and carbon steel, are corrosion-resistant and can withstand high pressures.

But what sets a DK-LOK JIC fitting apart from other hydraulic fittings? Let’s explore this and more as we delve deeper into the world of DK-LOK JIC flare fittings.

DK-Lok K Series JIC Tube Fitting
DK-Lok K Series JIC Tube Fitting

Understanding the SAE J514 37° Flared Standard for JIC Fittings

What is SAE J514 37° Flared Standard and Why is it Important?

The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) developed the Joint Industrial Council (JIC) fitting standard in the early 1930s to address issues with hydraulic system leaks. The 37° flare angle ensures a tight seal and prevents leaks in high-pressure applications. The SAE J514 standard specifies the dimensions, material, and performance requirements for JIC fittings. It is widely used in industries such as aerospace, automotive, and construction.

JIC fittings are easy to install and require no special tools, making them a popular choice for field installations. They have been designed to provide leak-free connections between fluid power components due to their ability to withstand high pressure and vibration. However, proper installation and torqueing of JIC fittings are critical to ensure a leak-free connection.

DK-Lok JIC FITTING Example Use
DK-Lok JIC FITTING Example Use

How Does SAE J514 37° Flared Standard Work?

The SAE J514 standard specifies that the male fitting end has a straight thread with an O-ring groove while the female end has a straight thread with a chamfered nose or cone-shaped sealing surface. The 37-degree flare angle on both ends creates a metal-to-metal seal when tightened together.

The seal is created by compressing the flared end of the tube against the mating surface of the fitting with enough force to cause plastic deformation of both parts. This plastic deformation causes radial expansion of both parts which results in an interference fit between them sealing off any gaps that might exist between them.

Benefits of Using DK-LOK JIC Fittings

DK-LOK USA offers several types of fittings based on industry standards like SAE-J514, ISO-8434-2 as well as custom configurations based on customer specifications. Their products are designed for use in high-pressure fluid applications and are made from high-quality materials that meet or exceed industry standards.

DK-LOK JIC fittings are easy to install, require no special tools, and provide a leak-free connection between fluid power components. Their fittings have been designed to withstand high pressure and vibration, ensuring that the connection remains secure even in demanding environments.

Features and Benefits of DK-LOK® K Series JIC Tube Fittings

High-Quality Materials for Durability and Reliability

DK-LOK® K Series JIC Tube Fittings are made of high-quality materials that ensure durability and reliability. These fittings are manufactured using stainless steel, brass, or carbon steel, depending on the application requirements. The materials used in these fittings are carefully selected to withstand harsh environments and extreme temperatures. This ensures that the fittings can perform optimally under different conditions, making them ideal for various applications.

Compact Design for Easy Installation in Tight Spaces

One of the key features of DK-LOK® K Series JIC Tube Fittings is their compact design. This allows for easy installation in tight spaces where conventional fittings cannot be used. The fittings have a small footprint, which makes them ideal for use in areas where space is limited. Despite their compact size, these fittings provide excellent performance and reliability.

Leak-Tight Seal with JIC Flare Design

The JIC flare design of these fittings provides a leak-tight seal, ensuring that there is no loss of fluid or gas. The flared end of the fitting conforms to industry standards (SAE J514), allowing it to mate with other compatible components easily. This design ensures that the fitting can withstand high pressure and vibration without leaking.

Compatible with a Wide Range of Fluids and Gases

DK-LOK® K Series JIC Tube Fittings are compatible with a wide range of fluids and gases, making them versatile and suitable for various applications. These fittings can be used with hydraulic oils, fuels, water, steam, gases (including oxygen), chemical solutions, and many more substances commonly found in industrial settings.

Rigorous Testing Ensures Safety and Reliability

DK-LOK® K Series JIC Tube Fittings have undergone rigorous testing to meet industry standards such as ASME, ISO, and ASTM. The fittings are tested for pressure, temperature, vibration, and other factors to ensure their safety and reliability. This ensures that the fittings can perform optimally under different conditions, making them ideal for various applications.

Available in Various Sizes and Configurations for Flexibility

DK-LOK® K Series JIC Tube Fittings are available in various sizes and configurations, providing flexibility and customization options for different applications. These fittings come in numerous shapes such as straight connectors, elbows, tees, crosses etc., allowing users to configure their systems according to their specific needs. They also come in different sizes ranging from 1/8″ to 2″, ensuring compatibility with a wide range of tubing sizes.

Advantages of Using DK-LOK® JIC Flare Fittings and Adapters in Various Applications

Leak-Tight Seal for High-Pressure Applications

DK-LOK® JIC flare fittings and adapters are designed to provide a leak-tight seal in high-pressure applications. This feature makes them an excellent choice for use in industries such as oil and gas, chemical processing, and aerospace, where safety is critical. The fittings’ design ensures that they can withstand high pressures without leaking or failing, which can lead to costly downtime or even accidents.

Durability and Corrosion Resistance

The materials used to make DK-LOK® JIC flare fittings and adapters are of the highest quality, including stainless steel, brass, and carbon steel. These materials make the fittings highly durable and resistant to corrosion. They can withstand harsh environments such as those found in offshore drilling rigs or chemical processing plants.

Easy Installation with Minimal Maintenance

One of the significant advantages of using DK-LOK® JIC flare fittings and adapters is their ease of installation. They require minimal maintenance, which helps reduce downtime and increase productivity. The simple design allows for quick installation without requiring specialized tools or equipment.

Compatible with a Wide Range of Fluids

DK-LOK® JIC flare fittings and adapters are compatible with various fluids such as gases, liquids, and chemicals. This feature makes them suitable for use in different industries where different types of fluids are used. For example, they can be used in hydraulic systems that operate at high pressures or chemical processing plants that require resistance to corrosive substances.

Versatile Sizes and Configurations

DK-LOK® JIC flare fittings and adapters come in different sizes and configurations to meet various application needs. This versatility makes them adaptable to different systems with varying requirements. For example, some systems may require larger sizes for higher flow rates while others may need smaller sizes for better control.

Meet or Exceed Industry Standards

DK-LOK® JIC flare fittings and adapters are designed to meet or exceed industry standards such as SAE J514 and ISO 8434-2. This ensures their reliability and safety in high-pressure applications. The fittings’ compliance with industry standards also makes them interchangeable with other similar products, providing flexibility for users.

Types of K Series JIC Tube Fittings Available from DK-LOK®

DK-LOK® is a leading manufacturer of high-quality fittings for various industrial applications. One of their most popular product lines is the K series JIC tube fittings, which are widely used in hydraulic and pneumatic systems. These fittings are designed to provide leak-tight connections between tubes and other components, ensuring maximum efficiency and safety.

Wide Range of Materials

One of the key advantages of DK-LOK®’s K series JIC tube fittings is that they are available in a wide range of materials. This means that you can choose the material that best suits your application, whether it’s stainless steel, brass, or carbon steel. Stainless steel is an excellent choice for corrosive environments, while brass is ideal for applications where weight is a concern. Carbon steel offers great strength and durability at an affordable price point.

Various Sizes Available

Another advantage of DK-LOK®’s K series JIC tube fittings is that they come in various sizes ranging from 1/8″ to 2″. This means that you can find the right size fitting for your specific application, no matter how big or small it may be. The different sizes also allow for greater flexibility when designing your system.

Different Types of Fittings

DK-LOK®’s K series JIC tube fittings come in different types to suit different needs. Some examples include straight fittings, elbow fittings, tee fittings, and cross fittings. Straight fittings are ideal for connecting two tubes in a straight line, while elbow fittings are used when you need to change the direction of flow by 90 degrees. Tee fittings allow you to connect three tubes together at right angles, while cross fittings enable you to connect four tubes together at right angles.

High Pressure and Temperature Resistance

The K series JIC tube fittings from DK-LOK® are designed to withstand high pressure and temperature environments. This makes them ideal for use in hydraulic and pneumatic systems where there is a lot of pressure and heat. The fittings are made from high-quality materials that can handle extreme conditions without leaking or breaking.

Compatible with Different Tubing Materials

Finally, DK-LOK®’s K series JIC tube fittings are compatible with a wide range of tubing materials such as copper, aluminum, and stainless steel. This means that you can use these fittings with different types of tubes depending on your specific needs. The compatibility also allows for greater flexibility when designing your system.

Installation Process for K Series JIC Tube Fittings, SAE J514 37° Flared

Preparing the Tube End

Before installing K Series JIC tube fittings, it is crucial to prepare the tube end correctly. First, cut the tube square using a tubing cutter or saw. Avoid using a hacksaw as it can create burrs and uneven cuts that can damage the fitting and cause leaks. Once you have cut the tube, use a deburring tool to remove any sharp edges or burrs on both the inside and outside of the tube.

Inserting into Fitting Body

Next, insert the prepared tube end into the fitting body until it makes contact with the shoulder of the fitting. Make sure that there is no gap between the end of the tube and shoulder of the fitting. This ensures proper sealing and prevents leaks.

Tightening Sleeve onto Tube

Once you have inserted the tube into the fitting body, slide the sleeve onto it until it contacts with both ends of the fitting body. Using a wrench or pliers, tighten down on sleeve nut until it makes contact with both ends of fitting body. Then turn an additional 1/4 to 1/2 turn to ensure a secure connection.

It is important not to over-tighten as this can cause damage to both fittings and tubes leading to failure in service.

Assistance from Customer Service Team

Installing K Series JIC tube fittings may seem straightforward; however, if you encounter any issues during installation or require further assistance in selecting suitable fittings for your application needs, dk-lok’s customer service team is available to provide support and guidance.

With years of experience working with various industries such as oil & gas, chemical processing plants, power generation facilities amongst others; our customer service team has extensive knowledge about our products’ performance capabilities and limitations.

They will be able to provide expert advice on selecting appropriate fittings based on factors such as temperature, pressure, and media compatibility requirements.

Do JIC Fittings Need Teflon Tape?

JIC fittings are designed to create a metal-to-metal seal between the fitting body and the tube. Therefore, they do not require Teflon tape or any other sealing material.

However, if you are installing a JIC fitting that has an O-ring seal, it is essential to lubricate the O-ring with silicone grease before installation. This ensures proper sealing and prevents damage to the O-ring during installation.

Maintenance Tips for DK-LOK® JIC Flare Fittings

Regularly inspect fittings for signs of wear and tear

Regular inspections are necessary to ensure the proper functioning of DK-LOK® JIC flare fittings. Before installing or using the fittings, it is crucial to check if there are any signs of wear and tear. Some common indications that a fitting needs replacement include cracks, dents, corrosion, or deformation on the surface. These damages can cause leakage and eventually lead to system failure.

To avoid these issues, make sure to inspect all parts of the fitting thoroughly before use. Check if there are any visible damages or deformities in the threads, nuts, sleeves, or ferrules. Any sign of damage should be addressed immediately by replacing the affected part with a new one. By doing so regularly and promptly, you can ensure that your system remains safe and functional.

Use proper tools when installing or removing fittings to prevent damage

When installing or removing DK-LOK® JIC flare fittings, it is essential to use appropriate tools to prevent damage. Using improper tools such as pliers or wrenches can cause scratches on the surface of the fitting and may result in leaks. It is recommended to use a torque wrench calibrated correctly according to manufacturer specifications.

Moreover, it is important not only to use appropriate tools but also to follow installation instructions carefully. Make sure that you install each component in its correct order and orientation as specified by the manufacturer’s guidelines.

Clean fittings thoroughly before installation to ensure a tight seal

Before installing DK-LOK® JIC flare fittings, it is crucial to clean them thoroughly. Dirt particles or debris present on the surface can hinder a tight seal between components resulting in leakage during operation.

To clean the fitting properly, first remove any dust particles from both ends using compressed air or lint-free cloth gently. Then wash them with mild detergent soap mixed with water, rinse with water, and finally dry them with a clean cloth. Make sure that no residue is left on the surface of the fitting before installation.

Avoid over-tightening fittings as it can cause damage and leaks

Over-tightening DK-LOK® JIC flare fittings can cause significant damage to the system. Over-tightening can lead to deformation or stress in the ferrule or sleeve resulting in leakage during operation. It is essential to follow manufacturer’s guidelines when tightening fittings, which usually involves using a torque wrench calibrated correctly.

To avoid over-tightening, make sure that you do not apply excessive force while tightening the fitting. Once you feel resistance while tightening, stop immediately and check if there are any visible signs of deformation or damage on the surface.

Replace any damaged or worn-out fittings immediately to prevent system failure

If you notice any visible sign of wear and tear on DK-LOK® JIC flare fittings, it is crucial to replace them immediately. A damaged fitting can result in leakage leading to system failure and safety hazards.

When replacing a fitting, ensure that you use only genuine parts supplied by the manufacturer for optimal performance. Also, make sure that you follow installation instructions carefully while replacing components.

Common Issues with DK-LOK® JIC Flare Fittings and Their Solutions

Improper Installation and Over-Tightening of Fittings Can Cause Leaks

One of the most common issues that users face with DK-LOK® JIC flare fittings is leakage. This can occur due to improper installation or over-tightening of the fittings. When installing these fittings, it is essential to ensure that they are tightened just enough to create a seal without over-tightening them.

Over-tightening can cause damage to the fitting’s threads, leading to leaks. On the other hand, under-tightening can also result in leaks as it may not create a proper seal. Therefore, it is crucial to follow the manufacturer’s instructions when installing these fittings.

To avoid leakage caused by improper installation, make sure you use the appropriate tools for tightening and loosen them correctly. It is also advisable to use torque wrenches for proper tightening.

Corrosion and Wear Can Cause Fitting Failure

Another issue that users face with DK-LOK® JIC flare fittings is corrosion and wear over time. These fittings are made from various materials such as stainless steel, brass, or carbon steel. While these materials are known for their durability and resistance to corrosion, they may still corrode over time due to environmental factors such as moisture.

Corrosion can weaken the fitting’s structure, leading to failure and leaks. Similarly, wear from regular use can also lead to fitting failure if not addressed promptly.

To prevent fitting failure caused by corrosion or wear, it is essential to perform regular maintenance on your system. Regular inspection will help identify any signs of corrosion or wear early on before they become severe issues.

Incompatible Materials Used in the System Can Also Cause Problems with DK-LOK® JIC Flare Fittings

Using incompatible materials in a hydraulic system can cause problems with DK-LOK® JIC flare fittings. These fittings are designed to work with specific materials and may not function correctly if incompatible materials are used.

For instance, using a fitting made from brass in a hydraulic system that uses stainless steel tubing can cause galvanic corrosion. This type of corrosion occurs when two dissimilar metals come into contact, causing an electric current that corrodes the metal.

To avoid problems caused by incompatible materials, ensure that all components of your hydraulic system are compatible with each other and follow the manufacturer’s recommendations for material compatibility.

Regular Maintenance and Inspection Can Help Prevent Issues

Regular maintenance and inspection of your hydraulic system can help prevent issues with DK-LOK® JIC flare fittings. By inspecting your system regularly, you can identify any signs of wear or corrosion early on before they become severe issues.

Maintenance activities such as cleaning, lubrication, and tightening loose connections will also help keep your system functioning correctly. It is essential to follow the manufacturer’s recommendations for maintenance and inspection intervals to ensure optimal performance of your hydraulic system.

Quality Standards for DK-LOK® K Series JIC Adapters

Meeting or Exceeding Industry Standards

Quality is of the utmost importance. The DK-LOK® K Series JIC Adapters are designed to meet or exceed industry standards. This ensures that they are reliable and safe to use in any hydraulic system.

One of the key reasons why the DK-LOK® K Series JIC Adapters are so highly regarded is because they are manufactured to the highest quality standards. These adapters are made with precision engineering, which ensures that they fit perfectly into hydraulic systems without any leaks or other issues.

High-Quality Materials and Design

The materials used in these adapters are also top-notch. They are made from high-quality materials that resist corrosion and wear, ensuring that they last a long time even under harsh conditions. These adapters can withstand high pressure and temperature environments, making them ideal for use in a wide range of applications.

DK-LOK® K Series JIC Adapters undergo rigorous testing to ensure that they meet strict quality control standards. This includes testing for durability, reliability, and safety. As a result of this testing process, customers can be confident in their purchase knowing that it has been thoroughly vetted for safety and performance.

Certified International Standards

DK-LOK® K Series JIC Adapters have been certified to various international standards including ISO 9001, CE, and ATEX. These certifications ensure that the adapters meet specific requirements related to design, manufacture, performance, and safety.

ISO 9001 certification is an internationally recognized standard for quality management systems (QMS). It provides assurance to customers that products consistently meet customer requirements and regulatory standards.

CE certification indicates compliance with European Union regulations related to health, safety, environmental protection and consumer protection.

ATEX certification is required by EU law for equipment intended for use in potentially explosive atmospheres. It ensures that the equipment is safe for use in hazardous environments.

How to Select the Right DK-LOK® JIC Flare Fitting for Your Application

Consider the Type of Fluid or Gas That Will Flow Through the Fitting

When selecting a DK-LOK® JIC flare fitting, it’s essential to consider the type of fluid or gas that will flow through it. Different fluids and gases have unique properties that can affect the performance of fittings. For instance, corrosive fluids require fittings made from specific materials such as stainless steel or titanium to prevent damage.

It’s also crucial to select a fitting with an appropriate pressure rating based on the fluid or gas being transported. If you’re dealing with high-pressure applications, choose a fitting with a higher pressure rating to ensure safety and prevent leaks.

Determine Pressure and Temperature Requirements for Your Application

Pressure and temperature are critical factors in determining which DK-LOK® JIC flare fitting is suitable for your application. When selecting a fitting, consider both its maximum rated pressure and temperature range.

If your application involves high temperatures, it’s essential to choose a fitting made from materials that can withstand these conditions without degrading or failing. In contrast, low-temperature applications may require fittings made from specialized materials such as brass or copper-nickel alloys.

Choose Appropriate Material Based on Compatibility With Fluid/Gas and Environmental Factors

The material used in making DK-LOK® JIC flare fittings plays an important role in their compatibility with different fluids/gases and environmental factors. Some materials are more resistant to corrosion than others; thus, they are ideal for use in corrosive environments.

For instance, if you’re working with seawater systems where corrosion is prevalent, choosing Monel 400 fittings would be ideal due to their resistance to seawater corrosion. Similarly, if you’re working in highly acidic environments like chemical processing plants, Hastelloy C276 is an excellent choice due to its high resistance against acidic corrosion.

Select Correct Size and Thread Type to Ensure a Secure and Leak-Free Connection

Selecting the right size and thread type is crucial in ensuring a secure and leak-free connection. When choosing a fitting, ensure that it matches the pipe or tubing size to which it will be connected. A mismatch in size can cause leaks or even damage to the system.

It’s also essential to choose the right thread type for your application. DK-LOK® JIC flare fittings come with different thread types such as NPT, BSP, and SAE. Choosing the wrong thread type can result in leaks, improper sealing, or even damage to the system.

Take Into Account Space Limitations or Accessibility Issues When Selecting Fitting

When selecting DK-LOK® JIC flare fittings, take into account any space limitations or accessibility issues that may affect installation. Some applications may have limited space where traditional fittings cannot fit; thus, you need specialized fittings like elbow-shaped ones.

Accessibility is another factor to consider when selecting a fitting. If you’re working in areas with limited access, choosing fittings that are easy to install would be ideal. For instance, push-in fittings are easy to install as they require no tools compared to compression-type fittings.

Consult With DK-LOK® Representative or Technical Expert if You Have Questions/Concerns

If you have any questions or concerns about selecting the right DK-LOK® JIC flare fitting for your application, consult with their representative or technical expert. They have vast knowledge of their products and understand different applications’ requirements; thus, they can help you make an informed decision.

Comparison between DK-LOK® USA Tube Fittings and Valves

Reliable and Leak-Free Performance

DK-LOK® USA Tube Fittings are designed to provide reliable and leak-free performance, ensuring that your system operates smoothly without any interruptions. These fittings are manufactured to meet or exceed industry standards, making them a top choice for various applications.

One reason why DK-LOK® USA Tube Fittings offer superior performance is their two-ferrule design. This design provides a secure, leak-tight seal even under extreme conditions, such as high pressure and temperature. These fittings feature a back ferrule that grips the tube tightly to prevent it from twisting or turning during installation or operation.

Another advantage of using DK-LOK® USA Tube Fittings is their compatibility with various types of tubing materials. Whether you’re working with stainless steel, copper, or plastic tubing, there’s a fitting available that will work seamlessly with your application.

Wide Range of Materials, Sizes, and Configurations

Valves from DK-LOK® USA are available in a wide range of materials, sizes, and configurations to meet the needs of different industries and applications. From ball valves to needle valves to check valves, there’s a valve available for every purpose.

One benefit of using valves from DK-LOK® USA is their durability. These valves are built to withstand harsh environments and heavy usage without sacrificing performance. They’re made from high-quality materials such as stainless steel or brass that can resist corrosion and wear over time.

Furthermore, DK-LOK® USA offers customized valve solutions tailored to specific applications. You can choose from various end connections such as NPT threads or compression fittings depending on your requirements. You can also select the type of handle or actuator that best suits your needs.

Compliance with Industry Standards

DK-LOK® USA products undergo rigorous testing and certification processes to ensure compliance with industry standards and regulations. This means that you can trust these products to perform safely and reliably in your system.

For instance, DK-LOK® USA valves are tested according to various standards such as API 607 Fire Test, API 6D, and ASME B16.34. These tests verify that the valves can withstand high temperatures, pressures, and other extreme conditions without failure.

Similarly, DK-LOK® USA Tube Fittings are tested for performance under various conditions such as pressure cycling, temperature cycling, vibration testing, and helium leak detection. These tests ensure that the fittings meet or exceed industry standards for reliability and leak-tightness.

Superior Quality, Durability, and Performance

Compared to other tube fittings and valves on the market, DK-LOK® USA products offer superior quality, durability, and performance. The company’s commitment to excellence is evident in every product they manufacture.

DK-LOK® USA products are made from high-quality materials using advanced manufacturing processes. The result is a product that performs consistently at a high level even under demanding conditions. These products are designed with ease of use in mind so that installation and maintenance are straightforward.

Finally, DK-LOK® USA offers excellent customer service to support their products. If you have any questions or concerns about their fittings or valves, their team of experts is available to help you find the right solution for your needs.

Future Developments in DK-LOK® JIC Fittings Technology

As the demand for reliable and efficient tube fittings continues to grow, DK-LOK® has been at the forefront of developing innovative solutions. The company’s K Series JIC Tube Fittings have become a popular choice among industries due to their superior performance and durability.

Moving forward, DK-LOK® is committed to continuing its research and development efforts to provide even more advanced solutions that meet the evolving needs of customers. With a focus on innovation and excellence in manufacturing practices, they are poised to remain a market leader in tube fittings technology.

Call-to-action: If you’re looking for high-quality tube fittings that offer superior performance and reliability, look no further than DK-LOK®. Visit their website today to learn more about their products and services.

FAQs

Q1. What materials are used in making DK-LOK® JIC Flare Fittings?

A1. The fittings are made from high-quality materials such as stainless steel 316/316L or brass C37700/C36000.

Q2. Can I use DK-LOK® JIC Flare Fittings with other brands?

A2. Yes, you can use them interchangeably with other brands that meet the same SAE specifications.

Q3. What is the pressure rating for K Series JIC Tube Fittings?

A3. The pressure rating varies depending on the size and material of the fitting, but they can handle up to 6000 psi.

Q4. How do I ensure proper installation of DK-LOK® JIC Flare Fittings?

A4. Follow the installation instructions provided by DK-LOK®, use appropriate tools, and ensure that the tube end is properly deburred.

Q5. What are some common issues with DK-LOK® JIC Flare Fittings?

A5. Some common issues include leaks, improper assembly, and overtightening. These can be avoided by following the installation and maintenance guidelines provided by DK-LOK®.

Q6. Are there any certifications for DK-LOK® K Series JIC Adapters?

A6. Yes, they are certified to meet various industry standards such as ISO 9001:2015, ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section III NCA 3800, and CRN (Canadian Registration Number).

Q7. Can I get customized fittings from DK-LOK®?

A7. Yes, they offer custom solutions based on your specific requirements such as size, material, or application needs.

Need DK-LOK JIC Fittings? Contact us at Michigan Valve and Fitting today – your trusted source for all your hydraulic fitting requirements

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